- academic degrees
Chicago recommends omitting periods in abbreviations of academic degrees (BA, DDS, etc.) unless they are required for reasons of consistency or tradition.
Spelled-out terms, often capitalized in institutional settings (and on business cards and other promotional items), should be lowercased in normal prose. Examples: AB, BA, AM, MA, BA, BFA, BS, DMD, JD, MBA, but EdM, PhD. These designations are set off by commas when they follow a personal name. (Chicago 16, 10.20, p.494)
If mention of degrees is necessary to establish someone's credentials, the preferred form is to avoid an abbreviation and use instead a phrase such as John Jones, who has a doctorate in psychology. (AP Stylebook, 2004)
Use an apostrophe in bachelor's degree, a master's, etc.
Also: an associate degree (no possessive)
Use such abbreviations as BA, MA, LLD and PhD only when the need to identify many individuals by degree on first reference would make the preferred form cumbersome. Use these abbreviations only after a full name—never after just a last name.
When used after a name, an academic abbreviation is set off by commas: Daniel Moynihan, PhD, spoke.
Do not precede a name with a courtesy title for an academic degree and follow it with the abbreviation for the degree in the same reference:
Wrong: Dr. Pam Jones, PhD
Right: Dr. Pam Jones, a chemist
When in doubt about the proper abbreviation for a degree, follow the first listing in the latest Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary.
- academic subjects (and courses of study and lecture series)
Academic subjects are not capitalized unless they form part of a department name or an official course name or are themselves proper nouns (such as English or Latin).
She has published widely in the history of religions.
They have introduced a course in gender studies.
He is majoring in comparative literature.
She is pursuing graduate studies in philosophy of science.
Official names of courses are capitalized.
I am signing up for Archaeology 101.
A popular course at the school is Basic Manuscript Editing.
Names of lecture series are capitalized. Individual lectures are capitalized and usually enclosed in quotation marks.
This year’s Robinson Memorial Lectures were devoted to the nursing profession.
The first lecture, “How Nightingale Got Her Way,” was a sellout.
- Academy for Transformation
- Use the official title, YouthBuild Academy for Transformation. After the first mention in an article, use academy (no capital A). The YouthBuild Academy for Transformation offers workshops throughout the year. The academy also offers . . .
In academy marketing materials, it’s OK to use Academy (uppercase A).
- affiliate — member (of the YouthBuild USA Affiliated Network).
- These terms can be used interchangeably.
- Avoid using the word “aftercare” when referring to resources available to YouthBuild graduates. Instead, use terms such as “ alumni program” or “graduate resources program.”
- A female who has graduated from a particular school, college, university, or program.
- The plural of alumna. Use when referring to a group of women who have graduated.
- The plural of alumnus. Use when referring to a group of people, both men and women, who have graduated from a school, college, university, or program. Or use graduates instead.
- Just the three capital letters in YouthBuild USA publications. The AlumniXChange planners may spell it differently in their marketing materials.
- A person, usually a male, who has graduated from a particular school, college, university, or program.
- at-risk youth — out-of-school youth
- Avoid using the terms “at-risk youth” or “out-of-school youth.” Instead, use phrases such as “opportunity youth.”
- the “B” policy
- In YouthBuild USA publications, it's always “YouthBuild,” not “Youthbuild”—except when we are referring specifically to Title D: “Hope for Youth—Youthbuild.” In HUD publications only, we use “Youthbuild,” with the following exceptions: YouthBuild USA and local programs that have “YouthBuild” as part of their proper names, such as YouthBuild Boston and YouthBuild Philadelphia.
- college-bound (adj)
- court-involved youth
- Use this term instead of “adjudicated youth” or “ex-offender,” especially when referring to youth involved in the YouthBuild USA SMART program. (Use “youthful offender” when referring to youth involved in the YouthBuild Youth Offender Project.)
- diploma-granting (adj)
- Directors Association
- No apostrophe.
- Directors Council
- No apostrophe.
- drop out (v)
- Don't drop out of school.
- dropout (n)
- He was a high school dropout.
- see “youthful offender”
- GED (n)
- Do not use periods. He's studying for his GED.
- Head Start (proper n)
- Funding for the Head Start program was delayed.
- high school (adj.)
- He was a high school dropout. (no hyphen)
- mental toughness (n)
- The phrase is only capitalized when used as the name of a YouthBuild program’s orientation program.
YouthBuild graduates have also proven themselves to be valuable role models and teachers during the Mental Toughness orientation.
Many believe that mental toughness builds the foundations for long-term success.
- proper names
- “YouthBuild” is the movement as a whole or the program design in general.
YouthBuild is a program for young people who have not completed high school.
When referring to a local program or the national organization, be specific.
YouthBuild Gary, YouthBuild USA.
“YouthBuild USA” is always spelled out, never abbreviated. Always include the “USA” when referring to the national nonprofit organization.
“YouthBuild USA Affiliated Network”: “Affiliates” or “Members” of the YouthBuild USA Affiliated Network? Either word can be used to refer to YouthBuild programs that belong to the network.
- Young Leaders Council
- No apostrophe.
- youth policy committee
- The youth governing body at local YouthBuild programs. Not capitalized.
- The movement as a whole or the program design in general. YouthBuild is a program for young people who have not completed high school. When referring to a local program or the national organization, be specific: YouthBuild Gary, YouthBuild USA.
- YouthBuild USA
- Always spelled out, never abbreviated. Always include the “USA” when referring to the national nonprofit organization.
- YouthBuild USA Affiliated Network: “Affiliates” or “Members” of the YouthBuild USA Affiliated Network
- Either word can be used to refer to YouthBuild programs that belong to the network.